Tripura, one of the north-eastern States of India, is surrounded by Bangladesh on the north, west, and south. On the east, it is bounded by Mizoram and on the north-east by Assam (Border with Bangladesh is 856 Kms.).
Tripura was an independent Hindu kingdom for more than 1,300 years before it was acceded to India on 15th October 1949 and was designated as union territory in 1956. It acquired full status as a state on 21st January 1972.
Tripura is divided into eight Districts viz. West Tripura, South Tripura, North Tripura, Dhalai Tripura, Sepahijala Tripura, Gomati Tripura, Unakoti Tripura and Khowai Tripura. In the central and northern parts of the state, four major river valleys--Dharmanagar, Kailashahar, Kamalpur, and Khowai are separated from each other by low mountain ranges. The extensive Tripura Agartala Plains in the south-west are adjacent to the Ganges- Brahmaputra lowlands of Bangladesh. The Gumti is the longest river in the state. Climate is hot in the valleys and cooler in the mountains. Average rainfall is 248 cm during the southwest monsoon from June to September.
A large number of the population speaks Bengali. The second most important language is Kokborak . There are significant population of Hindi, Manipuri, and Oriya speaking also. The majority of the people are Hindus whereas Muslims, Buddhists and Christians make up the minorities. Tripura's population is mainly rural. Towns are concentrated on the Tripura Plains and near the International borders.
Tripura is primarily an agricultural area with rice as the major crop. Other cash crops are jute, cotton, tea, and various fruits including pineapples, jackfruits and oranges. Livestock includes cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, horses, pigs, and poultry. Forest produce are timber, bamboo, firewood, and charcoal and rubber of a high quality. Sericulture is widespread. Cottage industries such as weaving, carpentry, basketry, and pottery are prevalent. Small private entrepreneurs produce tea, sugar, sawn timber, bricks, glass, utensils, and furniture.
Tripura's topography has made surface communication difficult, and Indian Airlines, Indigo, Jet Airways, Spice Jet, Jet Lite, King Fisher services between Agartala and Kolkata is the quickest link between Tripura and the remaining part of the country. There is an important road link (National Highway 44) from Agartala to Assam, and a rail line joins the town of Agartala in West Tripura District to Lumding, Assam. Most of the rivers carry boat traffic, especially during the monsoon.
The members of the scheduled tribes who live mostly in the interior areas are divided into nineteen groups speaking a variety of languages and dialects. Area of Tripura is 10,491 square km and its population is 37,71,168 (2001 census).